About Time I Read It: An Appetite for Wonder by Richard Dawkins

Some staff member at my favorite local library must be a fan of Richard Dawkins because for weeks a copy of the esteemed scientist’s  2013 memoir An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist had been prominently displayed in the memoirs, biographies and autobiographies section. One Saturday my curiosity finally got the better of me and I decided to borrow it. Once the memoir was in my possession I slowly made my way through it, finishing mere days before it was due back at the library. Perhaps like most books, there as things about it I liked and things I didn’t.

This is the second book I’ve read by the renowned British evolutionary biologist, science writer and “New Atheist.” Over a decade ago I read his much talked about 2006 book The God Delusion. (Not long afterwards I followed it up with Alister McGrath and Joanna McGrath’s Christian response,The Dawkins Delusion?: Atheist Fundamentalism and the Denial of the Divine.) Written as the first volume of a two volume set, the book covers the lives of his parents, his childhood and his early career as a scientist, ending with the publication of his first book The Selfish Gene.

Before reading Appetite for Wonder I would have assumed even though I wasn’t an expert on Dawkins I probably knew more about him than the average person. After reading this book I learned quite quickly how ignorant I really was. For instance, I had no idea he was born in Africa. (His father had been working as an agricultural civil servant in what is now Malawi when he was drafted into the military. A few years later, after his father was posted to nearby Kenya Dawkins was born.) Likewise, I had no idea one of the world’s most prominent atheists was a devout Anglican in his youth, albeit for a short period. I also wasn’t aware he spent time at UC Berkeley as an assistant professor of zoology during the tumultuous late 60s and took part in anti-war protests. Lastly, I had no idea he was a pioneer in the field of computer programing.

My least favorite passages of the book are the ones where Dawkins goes on and on about early computer programming. I also didn’t enjoy some of the science-related stuff, but his thoughts on evolution towards the end of the book were pretty good. Overall, it’s a decent book and it’s left me thinking I might read more of his stuff down the road.

2018 In Review: My Favorite Nonfiction

Yikes, the year is almost over and I haven’t done My Favorite Nonfiction of 2018 post. I better get cracking because 2019 is mere hours away. And to make matters worse, 2018 was a strong year for nonfiction and I read a ton of great books. Therefore, limiting my list to just 12 is going to be going to be hard. After a lot of thought I’ve narrowed it down to these outstanding works of nonfiction. Of course, it doesn’t matter when the books were published; all that matters is they’re excellent. As always, they’re listed in no particular order.

As you can see, this list reflects my reading interests. It’s heavy on history, especially that of World War II and the Holocaust. I’m happy to report eight of these books came from the public library, with four of those complete unknowns until I spotted them on the shelf. Three books on this list I purchased years ago. One, Fascism: A Warning, I borrowed from a friend.

As difficult as it was to choose the year’s 12 best, harder still was selecting an overall favorite. For months I went back and forth between Lawrence O’Donnell’s Playing with Fire and Gal Beckerman’s When They Come for Us, We’ll Be Gone. After much thought I’ve decided to break with tradition and declare a tie. These two books will share the honor of being my favorite nonfiction book of 2018.

About Time I Read It: Fleeing Fundamentalism by Carlene Cross

For years whenever I’d haunt the shelfs at my local public library I’d seen Carlene Cross’ 2006 memoir Fleeing Fundamentalism: A Minister’s Wife Examines Faith sitting on the shelf, but never borrowed it despite how promising it looked. Finally, one day at the library my curiosity got the better of me. While grabbing books right and left I added hers to the growing stack of books clutched in my arms and headed to the check-out desk. It was a wise move because Fleeing Fundamentalism is an outstanding memoir.

In her 2006 memoir, she recalls her life beginning with her childhood in rural Montana, college days at an unaccredited Bible college, an evangelical minister’s wife, implosion of her troubled marriage, successful attempts to obtain a degree from a bona fide university while raising a household of young children, and finally her departure from the evangelical fold.

As a former evangelical myself, much of what she wrote resonated with me. Just like me, she wasn’t raised in a fundamentalist Christian household but embraced the faith as a young child one summer in a Vacation Bible School (VBS). (On one hand one wonders if it’s ethical for religious groups to proselytize among children. On the other hand, as a civil liberation I’m not sure I’m comfortable with the state prohibiting groups from doing so.) Later, as a young adult just like Cross I also experienced the religious zeal exhibited by many youthful converts. (Besides attending Bible college in Montana, she also spent a summer in Europe ministering to her co-religionists behind the then Iron Curtain.) Finally, perhaps more than anything it was our college experiences, academic and otherwise that were instrumental in guiding us away from evangelical Christianity.

Like so many other lives, one wonders to what degree a fateful decision here or there would have profoundly changed her life, For example, had she not attended VBS one summer, would she still have embraced fundamentalist Christianity? If she did not date and later marry her boyfriend from Bible college, would she have married a stable, loving yet Christian man instead of the troubled, self-destructive one who years later she needed to divorce and prompting her to obtain a quality education in order to support her family?

Fleeing Fundamentalism is more than one of those “I left the faith” books I’m so fond of reading. She’s a superb writer and once I started her memoir I couldn’t put it down. Just like the subject of my previous post Devil’s Game, Fleeing Fundamentalism is a surprisingly good book, so good it could end up making my year-end Best Nonfiction list. Therefore, I can recommend this fine memoir without hesitation.

About Time I Read It: God and His Demons by Michael Parenti

I was introduced to the writing of Michael Parenti a million years ago. During my freshman year in college the professor of my Introduction to American Politics class assigned four or five books to read and one of which was Parenti’s  Democracy for the Few. Impressed by Parenti’s radical approach to addressing the pressing political and social issues of the day, during my early post college years I went on to read a pair of his other books, namely The Sword and the Dollar: Imperialism, Revolution, and the Arms Race and Inventing Reality: The Politics of New Media. Then, as the years went by like many of us I lost much of of my youthful idealism and with it my hunger for the writing of Michael Parenti But like an old friend you slowly drifted away from but never forget, I always perked up whenever hearing he’d written something new.

In 2010 I learned he’d written yet another book, called God and His DemonsInstead taking on the evils of unchecked capitalism or modern-day imperialism Parenti turned his sights on the abuses of religion, especially how it’s used to fleece and control the unsuspecting masses. Since Parenti is a leftist critic of the prevailing political and social order, I was curious to see how he would approach the topic of religion. I mentally added God and His Demons to my To Be Read List (TBR) and like I did so many other books promptly forgot about it.

Then a few months ago I requested my public library add the book to its catalog of available Kindle books via Overdrive. Not long after submitting my request I received an email from the library letting me know they’d purchased a copy, and that copy was available for me to check out. I downloaded God and His Demons to my Kindle Paperwhite and promptly began reading it.

If one is to properly critique something, it’s best to define exactly what one is critiquing. With that in mind Parenti begins his book by looking at what we in the West consider God. According to him, God is seen as being one of two things. One, God viewed as some kind of impersonal, supernatural life force that governs or in some way provides order to the universe. On the other hand, others see God a personified being, not only anthropomorphized but also according to critics like Parenti prone to fits of jealousy, wrath and genocide (and the occasional loving father or deliverer from evil). From there Parenti goes on to show how throughout history many have used religion as a handy tool to oppress, enslave or manipulate.

Even though Parenti is an atheist I got the impression from reading this book his goal isn’t to attack religion per se, and certainly not all religious believers. I think he mainly wants to show how religion has been used by those in power to maintain control. In contrast to many critics of religion, his targets aren’t entirely the Abrahamic faiths of the West. In one of his later chapters he spends a great deal of time showing how the ruling Buddhist clerics of Tibet maintained their oppressive feudal control over the country’s peasantry before deposed by the Chinese.

While books like The God Delusion, God is Not Great and The End of Faith might have made headlines, God and his Demons never achieved the same level of notoriety. That seems unfair because it’s a worthy book in its own right and deserves to be read along the three above mentioned religious critiques. I’m not sure God and His Demons rank among the best books I’ve read this year, but I enjoyed it. And trust me, that’s never a bad thing.

Women Beyond Belief: Discovering Life Without Religion edited by Karen Garst

Over the years I’ve read countless anthologies and oral histories. During that time, while reading those kind of books not once had I read anything by a person I knew personally. That is, until now. And when it happened it was a complete surprise.

Early one evening after work I once again found myself at the public library rummaging through the shelves of newly acquired books. Just before I decided to leave I thought I’d take one more pass through the shelves and when I did I spotted a copy of Women Beyond Belief: Discovering Life Without Religion. Since I have a soft spot for stuff written by women who’ve left their faith communities I happily grabbed it.

A few days later while reading the autobiographical pieces collected in Women Beyond Believe I began noticing more and more of the contributors happened to live in my current hometown of Portland, Oregon. Finding that a bit odd, I looked at the editor’s info as presented in the book. Not only is Karen Garst a fellow Portlander, but so are also most or close to all the women featured in her collection. You can imagine my surprise when I learned one of those women I know from several Meet-Ups I’ve attended over the last couple of years. Small world, aint it?

The roughly two dozen women who’ve contributed to this book are former believers representing a broad spectrum of Judeo-Christian religions. Be it Catholic, Mormon, Jewish or Protestant all of these women for a variety of reasons left their respective faiths. Each one of their stories makes for worthwhile reading.

I’m glad Garst put together this fine collection because frankly, there’s a need for books like hers. While there’s no shortage of books written by avowed atheists, a lot of them are written by men. With a few notable exceptions like Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Betty Bogaard and Candace R. M. Gorham it tends to be a male-dominated field. Perhaps with the successful publication of Women Beyond Belief we’ll see more books written by women of non-faith.

Heretics and How God Changes Your Brain

Sadly, once again I find myself falling behind in my blogging and needing to play a little catch-up. In the future if this happens, (and probably will) my guess is you’ll see me doing more of  these little catch-up posts in which I discuss multiple books. Even though it feels like I’m “cheating, it’s a great way to recover lost ground. Plus, it allows me to utilize the gallery feature, which it always fun to use and ideal when spotlighting a series of books.

Heretic: Why Islam Needs a Reformation Now by Ayaan Hirsi Ali – Back in December when I did my year-end catch-up post, one of the many books I briefly featured was Ayaan Hirsi Ali’s Infidel. While I didn’t say a lot about her book, I did mention in my post my wish to read more of her stuff in the coming year. Not long after I wrote those words, I discovered Hirsi Ali had written another book. Much to my joy, I was soon able to secure a copy from my public library.

Seen by many as a controversial figure because of her highly critical views of the Islamic world, her latest book in my opinion doesn’t come off as being anti-Muslim per se, even though she is quite critical when it comes to many of the religion’s core beliefs and practices . Her call to reform is similar to that of Anouar Majid as outlined in his 2007 book A Call for Heresy: Why Dissent Is Vital to Islam and America.

Heretics and Heroes: How Renaissance Artists and Reformation Priests Created Our World by Thomas Cahill. Cahill has been a personal favorite of mine for years, ever since I read his  How the Irish Saved Civilization way back in 1995 . Since then, I’ve tried to read everything of his I can get my hands on, including his short biography of Pope John XXIII.

Honestly, I did not feel confident about Heretics and Heroes, since his last book in his Hinges of History series Mysteries of the Middle Ages: The Rise of Feminism, Science, and Art from the Cults of Catholic Europe left me a bit disappointed. So, with no small bit of trepidation, I grabbed a copy of Heretics and Heroes from my public library and gave it a shot. This time, much to my relief there was no disappointment.

Heretics and Heroes covers the Renaissance and Reformation eras from the late fourteenth to the early seventeenth century. Just as expected, Cahill hits all the pivotal events and major personalities. Much to my joy, he also takes time to discuss more than a few vital but overlooked historical contributions. I like Cahill because he makes history entertaining and accessible to readers who are not historians. It’s like having a lengthy but entertaining discussion about history over coffee with friendly and knowledgeable college professor. In so many ways reminded me of Tamin Ansary in his book  Destiny Disrupted: A History of the World Through Islamic Eyes.

How God Changes Your Brain: Breakthrough Findings from a Leading Neuroscientist by Andrew Newberg M.D. and Mark Robert Waldman – This was my book group’s selection for the month of February and honestly, when the decision was announced I wasn’t excited to read it. But with a week to go until our meeting I said what the heck and a bought a copy from Amazon. Fortunately for me, it was a quick read. Even more fortunate for me, it was not the super new age/woo/misuse of neuroscience book I feared. How God Changes Your Brain could be seen as a kind of self-improvement book and touts the benefits of meditation and meditation-like practices to lower stress to improve physical and mental health. Instead of being turned off by the book it left me wanting to adopt some of its recommended practices. It also left me wanting to read Daniel Dennett’s Breaking the Spell.

In an earlier post in which I discussed three different books, I briefly touched on some of the similarities I saw between the three books. When looking at these particular three, both Hirsi Ali and Cahill in their respective books discuss religious reformations and how they’ve been initiated by “heretical” individuals. Newberg and Waldman in their book, extol spiritual exercises as form of healthy meditation, and gave the example of Ignatius Loyola’s Spiritual Exercises as one example among many such exercises one could use to achieve greater health and well-being. Once again, I love finding commonalities in my reading material.

The Ebony Exodus Project by Candace R. M. Gorham

The Ebony Exodus Project: Why Some Black Women Are Walking Out on Religion—and Others Should TooWith a massive personal library of overflowing with books I’ve yet to read and a huge stack of library books begging for my attention, one would think the last thing I should be doing is buying more books. Well, that’s how a normal human being would act. But if you’re me, every so often I can’t resist the urge to buy a book or two. So, with an Amazon gift certificate burning a hole in my pocket and two weeks vacation time looming ahead of me, I threw caution to the wind and bought a pair of books. Both books, Candace R. M. Gorham’s The Ebony Exodus Project: Why Some Black Women Are Walking Out on Religion—and Others Should Too and Gerard Russell’s Heirs to Forgotten Kingdoms: Journeys Into the Disappearing Religions of the Middle East have been on my list to read for a year or two.

Back in 2013 I read Betty Brogaard The Homemade Atheist: A Former Evangelical Woman’s Freethought Journey to HappinessAccording to all the fancy algorithms employed by Goodreads, based on my interest in The Homemade Atheist, one of the next books I needed to read was The Ebony Exodus Project. I was intrigued by the book’s description. With the atheist/skeptic/secular humanist/free thought communities dominated by white male voices, I wanted to get the perspective of an African-American woman. After finishing The Ebony Exodus Project last week, I’m happy to report thanks to Gorham (along with Ayaan Hirsi Ali), those communities have vocal proponents who are also women of color.

Published in 2013, Gorham’s book is part memoir, analysis and oral history. After spending time as a minister in the Black Church, she left to pursue an advanced degree in counseling. As a result of her studies, life experience and personal reflection, she drifted away from first the Church and then religion overall. As both a mental health professional and avowed atheist, Gorham feels the Black Church has been far from beneficial to blacks, especially women. According to Gorham, the only reasonable course of action is for blacks to leave the church. In The Ebony Exodus Project she also includes oral histories from a number of women who have left Christianity, including the various roads they took to get there.

If, after reading Gorham’s book you find yourself looking for great follow-up reads from a woman’s perspective, there’s several books I can recommend. In addition to Brogaard’s The Homemade Atheist and Ayaan Hirsi Ali’s Infidel, you might explore Christine Rosen’s 2005 memoir My Fundamentalist Education: A Memoir of a Divine Girlhood. In addition, Kyria Abrahams’s I’m Perfect, You’re Doomed: Tales from a Jehovah’s Witness UpbringingVeronica Chater’s Waiting for the Apocalypse: A Memoir of Faith and Family and Deborah Feldman’s Unorthodox: The Scandalous Rejection of My Hasidic Roots are all great. Lastly, even though it’s not a memoir about leaving a religious community, Debra J. Dickerson’s 2004 book The End of Blackness should not be ignored either since it also addresses vital issues of importance to the African-American community.

This is a an excellent, thought-provoking book that should cause many people to ask some tough but necessary questions. With that in mind, even though I have a ton of stuff I need to read first, I feel my money was well spent on Gorham’s book.

Godless, Hallucinations, and Nothing to Envy

Last week I mentioned it’s been challenge keeping my blog up to date with all the books I’ve been reading. The good news is I’ve been reading some good stuff. The bad news is it’s been hard to blog about it. Therefore, I’ve resorted to doing mini-posts and wrap-up lists as ways of keeping you updated on what I’ve been reading. So, with that in mind, here’s a brief run-down on three books I recently finished.

After hearing good things about Dan Barker’s 2009 book Godless: How an Evangelical Preacher Became One of America’s Leading Atheists I decided to grab a copy from my public library. For those of you who don’t know, Barker is a former Pentacostal-ish minister and Christian musician/songwriter who, after a period of extensive reading, personal introspection and questioning his faith became an atheist. He’s now co-president of the Freedom From Religion Foundation and a frequent speaker on atheism and related topics. Since I have fondness for memoirs by individuals who left insular religious communities, it was hard for me not to like Godless. Being a former evangelical Christian myself, so much of what Barker said in his book struck a familiar, and in the end, reassuring chord with me.

Godless is both a memoir, and much like Peter Boghossian’s A Manuel for Creating Atheists, it’s also readable and informative guide to atheist thought. Personally, I liked the memoir sections of Godless a bit more than the other parts, but who cares ’cause it’s a very good book. I recommend Godless to any readers who are questioning their faith, curious about atheism or have already embraced a belief system similar to Barker’s.

In August of 2015 we lost the great Oliver Sacks. Through his books like Awakenings and The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat he showed readers the fascinating world of neurology. His use of accessible language made complex subjects not only comprehensible, but also enjoyable reading. Sacks’ inclusion of the human element in his case stories merged soul with science. With that in mind, when my book club opted to read Sacks’ 2012 book Hallucinations I was not disappointed.

Traditionally, people have always associated hallucinations with madness. According to Sacks, their origins can be legion, ranging from migraines, sensory deprivation, vision loss, epilepsy and severe stress. Far from always being a symptom of severe mental illness, hallucinations are far more common than people acknowledge. And yes, in case you were wondering, some recreational drugs do cause hallucinations. In his book Sacks details his experiences dabbling in these illicit substances. A bit to my surprise those passages ended up being my favorite parts of the book! This is classic Sacks and a worthy contribution to his sadly now closed cannon of work.

Five years ago I heard amazing things about Barbara Demick’s Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea. Jo praised it on her blog as did Kim on hers, but it took some recent encouragement from one of my book club members to make me finally read it. My goodness I wished I’d read it sooner. Nothing to Envy is outstanding.  Luckily for me, the copy I was able to get from the public library included a new afterward from the author that covered recent developments in North Korea like Kim Jong-un’s accession to power and his subsequent purge of rivals. Demick’s detailed look inside the horrible train wreck that is North Korea is must reading for anyone wanting to understand the rogue nation. Even though it’s early in the year I can easily see Nothing to Envy making my year-end Best of List. Consider this book highly recommended.

In conclusion, it’s easy to assume these three very good books have nothing in common (other than being library books) but alas that’s not the case. According to Dan Barker, Oliver Sacks was both an enthusiastic atheist as well as a personal friend. In Godless, Barker recalls Sacks had been a speaker at at least one atheist convention. In turn, Sacks loved Baker’s book Godless, calling it “fabulous” and proclaiming “Godless may well become a classic in its genre.” Lastly, one of the ordinary North Koreans who Demick wrote about in Nothing to Envy likened his disillusionment with the oppressive regime to becoming an atheist. Once he stopped believing in the mythology of the overarching, all-powerful North Korean system his entire universe changed. Kinda cool when you see how many things in life are in some way connected?


Memoirs of Faith: Unorthodox by Deborah Feldman

511w7EIzAhL._SX323_BO1,204,203,200_I have a weakness for memoirs. I have a huge weakness for memoirs by individuals who have left insular religious communities. Decades ago, I read Paul Hendrickson’s 1983 memoir Seminary: A Search. After that I was hooked. More recently, over the last five years I’ve read and enjoyed Kyria Abrahams’s I’m Perfect, You’re Doomed: Tales from a Jehovah’s Witness Upbringing, Veronica Chater’s Waiting for the Apocalypse: A Memoir of Faith and Family and Christine Rosen’s My Fundamentalist Education: A Memoir of a Divine GirlhoodThese first person accounts of growing up in closed-off and restrictive religious worlds and the frequently painful process of questioning, challenging and finally leaving these closed communities always makes for reading that’s both intellectually stimulating and personally inspiring. Because I love these kind of memoirs so much, I’m always on the lookout for more of them.

I’d seen reviews and mentionings of Unorthodox: The Scandalous Rejection of My Hasidic Roots floating around the Internet for the past several years. When I found an available copy through my public library I decided to take a chance on it, hoping it was one of those “leaving a religious community” kind of memoirs I love to read. After burning through Unorthodox in what must have been only a few days. I’m glad I did. Not only does Feldman write well, she does a fine job telling a unique and interesting story about religious community that few outsiders know anything about.

Even for someone brought up in an extreme Orthodox Jewish community, Feldman’s story is a unique one. Her parents met through an arranged marriage, with her English mother moving to America to marry the man who would end up being Feldman’s father. Not long after Feldman’s birth, her parents would divorce    resulting in her mother leaving both her religion and family behind. Also about the same time, her extended family came to the realization her father suffered from some sort of mental disability, making him reliant on the charity of others. Left essentially an orphan, Feldman would be raised by her relatives in a strict Satmar Orthodox community in New York’s Williamsburg neighborhood. At 17 she was married off in an arranged marriage and gave birth to a son a two years later. But soon she grew disillusioned with both her marriage and above all, life in the Satmar world. With little support and almost no secular education under her belt, she enrolled in college. Provided with a decent, secular education and surrounded by a wide range of intelligent and supporting individuals Feldman finally felt free and confident to live her life however she wanted to live it.

If you end up reading Feldman’s Unorthodox, (either because of, or in spite of what I’ve written here) and you too end up enjoying it, there’s two other books you should read. The first one, probably to no one’s surprise, is Chaim Potok’s classic American novel The Chosen. The other book, only slightly less well-known than Potok’s novel, is Warren Kozak’s The Rabbi of 84th Street: The Extraordinary Life of Haskel Besser.  Of course if that’s not enough and you want more, according to Amazon there’s whole batch of memoirs by former Orthodox Jews out there just waiting to be read, including Feldman’s follow-up memoir Exodus. So don’t be surprised if you see more of these kind of memoirs featured on my blog.

About Time I Read It: Forged by Bart Ehrman

I can’t believe it was just over 10 years ago that I discovered Bart Ehrman. Probably like most non-academics, my first introduction into Ehrman’s stuff was his 2003 book Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. I must have enjoyed it because after that, I went on to read just about everything by Ehrman I could get my hands on including Jesus, Interrupted: Revealing the Hidden Contradictions in the Bible (And Why We Don’t Know About Them), Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible and Why, God’s Problem: How the Bible Fails to Answer Our Most Important Question–Why We Suffer and Did Jesus Exist?: The Historical Argument for Jesus of Nazareth. Over the last 10 years I’ve seen his style evolve. Perhaps starting with God’s Problem, Ehrman’s approach has become more methodical, like he’s trying to make a powerful and convincing argument to  a reasonably intelligent, yet nevertheless nonacademic – and at the same time skeptical – audience. Therefore, I’ve admired his ability to take sophisticated and scholarly material and make it accessible and interesting to the rest of us.

Back in 2011, I’d read that Ehrman had written yet another book. As one might guess from the title,  Forged: Writing in the Name of God–Why the Bible’s Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are is Ehrman’s assertion that a surprising number of the books comprising the New Testament were not written by their purported authors. Of course, this assertion isn’t anything new or radical because most modern biblical scholars (not counting the more conservative ones) have been saying this for years. But I wanted to read Forged because I wanted to see how Ehrman approached the subject matter. Therefore, I made a mental note or two to read Ehrman’s book, should I ever come across a copy at the public library or second-hand book store. But then like so many other promising books I quickly forgot about it.

Funny thing is when you spend so many lazy weekends prowling the shelves at the public library  you come across all kinds of things, including books you’d forgotten that you once wanted to read. So when I spotted Forged, I thought to myself now’s a better time as any to finally read it. I grabbed Forged and added it to the small clutch of library books under my arm.

Just like with God’s Problem and Did Jesus Exist, Ehrman once again takes a methodical approach in making his claims, and in doing so, makes a compelling and easy to understand case that many of those New Testament books were not written by those we’ve always attributed them to. According to Ehrman, these disputed books break down into roughly two categories.

The first ones are books that judging by our earliest manuscripts were never explicitly attributed to an author. Even though they’re anonymous, the early Christians eventually associated them with authors in order to grant the books greater legitimacy. This list of books includes not just all four Gospels but also Acts and John’s three Epistles.

The second group of disputed New Testament books are those that have been attributed to an apostle or disciple, but in reality were not written by one of those venerable figures. This includes a number of Paul’s Epistles including Colossians and Ephesians. Included too are Epistles from James, Jude and Peter’s Second Epistle. According to Ehrman, these books were written years later by individuals within the early church who wanted to promote their particular religious agendas. By writing under the name of, say Paul or Peter they could grant authority to their writings and their words would be taken as scripture to be followed.

On top of this, in Forged Ehrman makes two additional claims that traditionalists will understandably dislike. One, in the Roman Empire literacy was restricted to minuscule minority. Chances are that a small group of Jewish fisherman and peasants could not only read and write Hebrew but also be fluent enough in Greek to compose sophisticated religious epistles and detailed histories are pretty slim. Therefore, it’s hard to believe men like Peter, John, Matthew and James wrote the stuff traditionally attributed to them. Second of all many conservative traditionalists say these misattributions should not disturb us because it was commonly accepted in the ancient world for one to “forge” his/her name to a document, as long as what was written still reflected the purported author’s ideas. However, according Ehrman a more careful examination of history shows otherwise. Forgery has always been forgery and it’s always been looked down on as being wrong.

I enjoyed Forged. With it, Ehrman continues to evolve as a writer and in all likelihood gain a wider audience. It is for this new audience of skeptical but nevertheless curious and engaged group of readers that I enthusiastically recommend his book Forged.